The COLLOQUIUM: Volume 4 Number 1 2013

Board of Editors

Editor-in-Chief Editor Associate Editor Editorial Advisers

Dr. N. S. Oguzor

Dr. Bassey Ubong

Dr. (Mrs.) Irene Bebebiafiai

Professor J. D. Okoh

Professor J. O. Bisong Professor N. E. Dienye

Professor A. M. Wokocha Professor J. C. Nnadozie

THE COLLOQUIUM is published by the College Conferences, Seminars, & Research Committee (CCS&RC) of the Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria. The Journal focuses on policy issues of a defined theme. Articles are reviewed by members of the Board of Editors as they relate to their areas of specialization or by external specialists. Some editions are compendia of articles selected following a special thematic seminar or conference. Copyrights of articles remain with the publishers but articles may be reproduced in part or in full provided they are acknowledged.

The Journal highlights certain issues of national and international significance by analyzing them as is, bringing out problems in policy and implementation and proffering suggestions and ways and means of solving problems or strengthening good policies and practices. However, the facts, views, and interpretations in the articles are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the publishers. The College, the CCS&RC, and the Board of Editors do not accept responsibility for the accuracy of the materials in the articles or the consequences of their use. This edition was funded by the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETF).

ISSN 0189 7349

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Editor’s Note

This special edition is a collectanea of review papers on issues related to educational administration in several areas from the not-very-common area of estate management to classroom management which a number of teachers appear to take for granted but could make a huge difference to leaching outcomes. The Editors appreciate the support of Tertiary Education Trust Fund in this effort.

Text Box: March 2013Volume 4 Number 1

Towards Improving the Quality of Estate Management Education in

Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

  1. A. Gabriel, A. M. Mala, A. A. Abdullahi & L. D. Musa                                             I

Needs Assessment of Technical-Vocational Education and Training (TVET):

Challenges and Prospects

Y. Mannan & H. R. Sai                                                                                                        7

Vocational Education in Nigeria: Background, Trends, and Challenges

P. Ordu                                                                                                                                  14

Library Materials in Nigerian Academic Libraries:

Preservation and Preventive Measures

A. N. Chama & M. J. Salihu                                                                                                20

Quality Education as a Panacea for Maladministration in the

Nigeria Police Force

J.   O. Okwuenu                                                                                                                    27

Pensions Administration in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

O. E. Ijenya                                                                                                                           33

Supervision and Inspection as Tools for Improving the

Quality of Primary Education in Adamawa State

S. Balluwa & G. Ahman                                                                                                      38

The Teaching Profession and the Role Nigerian Women in the Profession

U. E. G. Ogunu                                                                                                                     45

Classroom Management and Quality Education in Nigeria

M. S. Peter (Snr.) & N. U. Udeme                                                                                      50

Teaching Business Education in a Depressed Economy

E. D. Macaulay                                                                                                                     56

The History and Administrative Issues in the Management of

Secondary Schools in Nigeria

O.   V. Edori                                                                                                                           60

Quality Education and the Legislative Process

A. Bako & H. Shehu                                                                                                             68 I

Analysis of the Effects of Financial Corruption on Educational and                                          |‘

Public Service Administration in Nigeria

P.   Myatafadi & H. Jonah                                                                                                  72 I

Conflict in the Nigerian Educational System: The Quality Education Factor M- K- A. Waila

Environmental Education: A Focus for Reforms in Adult

and Non-Formal Education in Nigeria

Text Box: 88
J. A. Madumere

private Practice by Public Officers in Nigeria

F. N. Anumba

producing Quality Technical Teachers for Vocational/Technical

Education in Nigeria

F. C. Eke

A Multi-Disciplinary Thematic Policy Journal

RSN 0189- 7349

Towards Improving the Quality of Estate Management Education in Nigerian Tertiary

  1. I.     A. Gabriel, A. M. Mala, A. A. Abdullahi & U. D. Musa


The paper examines the various ways by which the quality of Estate Management education can be improved in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions so as to meet its overall policy objectives. It traces the historical development of Estate Management as a course of study and highlights some of the core competencies of the profession as well as the challenges confronting the programme among which are the low level of awareness of the profession, inadequate teaching and learning facilities, paucity of manpower, and poor curriculum design and implementation. The paper posits that unless timely intervention is made to improve the quality of Estate Management education in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions, the programme will not have the competitiveness it requires to be in the forefront as one of the leading courses that deals with man’s most significant and important asset, which is land.


Estate management is one of the disciplines known to belong to the environmental design and sciences offered in some of Nigeria’s tertiary educational institutions, namely, the universities and polytechnics. It is a field of study that is concerned with the judicious Husbandry of real estate/Iand resources. The discipline centres on all aspects of decision making relating to the development, management, and utilization of land/land resources. It deals with the planning, control, co-ordination, direction, and supervision of interests in landed property with a view to achieving predetermined objectives.

Thomcroft (1965) defines estate management as the direction and supervision of an interest in landed property with the aim of securing optimum returns. According to him, these returns need not always be financial, but may be in terms of social benefits, status, prestige, political power, or some other goal or group of goals. The nature of the training in estate management is quite extensive and broad-based as it cuts across several disciplines such as law, architecture, accounting, quantity surveying, land surveying, civil engineering, urban planning, and so on. The concern over what happens in these other related professions in the building ’ndustry is made only to the extent that is helps graduates of the profession to discharge their obligations effectively. Practitioners of estate management profession are known and addressed as ‘Estate Surveyors and Valuers.”

A. Gabriel & A. M. Mala. Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental ■indies, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri; A. A. Abdullahi & U. D. Musa, Department of Estate anagement, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.

There are three routes or paths to becoming an Estate Surveyor and Valuer. The first is b way of a degree in Estate Management while the second involves taking diploma courses in th polytechnics in the discipline. The diploma course is broken into the National Diploma (ND) the Higher National Diploma (HND) each of a duration of two years. There is a one-ye^ unsupervised industrial training upon completion of the National Diploma programme. Additionally, there is a four-month supervised industrial training after the first year of th National Diploma programme. The third path involves a candidate undertaking practical trains in an accredited estate surveying and valuation firm while at the same time sitting for t) professional qualifying examinations of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Value: (NIESV). This usually takes an average of four years. However, to practice as an Estate Survey and Valuer, one must be an “Associate” of NIESV and must be registered by the Esta Surveyors and Valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON). By May 2011, there were total of 2,679 registered Estate Surveyors and Valuers in Nigeria (Daily Trust, 2012).

The role of estate management as a profession in the economy of a nation is very obvioi because it is concerned with the planning, development, and management of land which considered to be man’s most important single asset. It is however regrettable to note that Esta Management education in Nigeria is fraught with a number of challenges that must be address to enhance its competitiveness and to produce quality graduates that will meet the developme aspirations of the country in the 21st century. It is against this above background that this pap proffers some measures towards improving the quality of Estate Management Education Nigerian tertiary educational institutions.

Historical Development of Estate Management as an Academic Discipline

Estate Management as an academic discipline began in 1957 in Nigeria when a local study u introduced in the then Nigerian College of Arts, Science, and Technology, Enugu which offs the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors syllabus to the intermediate examination level a. which the students had to be sent to England for their article ship and for the final examination That course metamorphosed into the Estate Management Department of the University Nigeria in 1962 (Umeh, 1986). It is noteworthy to state that today, no fewer than thirty-t universities and polytechnics in Nigeria offer courses in Estate Management due to increasing interest in the profession.

The profession received official government recognition by way of Decree No. 2^ 1975 (now an Act under CAP 111, Laws of the Federal of Nigeria). The Decree defines profession as a body of persons engaging in the art, science, and practice of:

  1. i.               Determining the value of all descriptions of property and the various interests therein;
  2. ii.             Managing and developing estates and other businesses concerned with the management landed property;
  3. iii.           Securing the optimal use of land and its associated resources to meet social and ecotio needs;
  4. iv.           Determining the structure and conditions of buildings and their services and advisio* their maintenance, alteration, and improvement;
  • v.            Determining the economic use of those resources by means of financial appraisal for the building industry;
  • vi.          Selling (whether by auction or otherwise), buying, or letting as an agent, real or personal property or any interest therein;

The practice of the profession is controlled by two bodies. These are the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV), which is a professional association and the Estate Surveyors and Valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON), a government regulatory body. The Board’s regulatory power includes registration and discipline of members, determining the level of educational and professional competence of Estate Surveyors and Valuers as well as the accreditation of institutions of higher learning offering courses in Estate Management along with the power to conduct examinations into the profession.

Core Competencies of the Estate Management Profession

Estate Management is designed and tailored to produce professionals that can provide services in the following areas:

  1. i.          Valuation of plant and machinery, equipment, fixtures and fittings, stock-in-trade, furniture; motor vehicles; engineering installations, systems and infrastructure
  2. ii.         Valuation of construction projects
  3. iii.        Valuation of oil and gas installations
  4. iv.       Valuation of interest in land and buildings for all purposes; sale, mortgage, insurance, acquisition, probate, stock and shares
  5. v.         Valuation of aviation and navigation installations including aircrafts and ship and vessels
  6. vi.       Valuation for compulsory acquisition and compensation purposes
  7. vii.      Feasibility/viability appraisal of planned de ve! opmen t/projects
  8. viii.     Property sales and leases/estate agency
  9. ix.       Advice on property rights, acquisition and transfer
  10. x.         Building maintenance/ management
  11. xi.       Project analysis and surveying

xi i.    Property management and development

  • xiii.      Infrastructure and facilities management
  • xiv.      land use planning and analysis
  • xv.        Construction project management

xv]. Project finance procurement and syndication

xvii. Environmental impact survey, analysis and valuation

xviii. Property inventory and audit

xix. Asset management (NIESV Code of Professional Ethics and Practice)

Career opportunities for graduates/professionals of Estate Management abound in property companies: estate surveying and valuation firms; Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Lcveiopmcnt (Federal and States); banks; property development agencies; facility management units/departments of organisations; works departments; railway corporations; Power Holdings Company of Nigeria (PHCN), Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC); institutions of higher learning; and many others.

Challenges of Estate Management Education in Nigeria

Generally, the education sector in Nigeria remains largely underfunded and besieged with decayed infrastructure and inadequate teaching and learning facilities. The abysmally low ranking status of Nigerian universities by international bodies is a reflection of the falling standard of education. Some of the challenges of Estate Management education are discussed below;

  1. i.               The broad nature of the course

Estate Management as a course of study is broad in nature as it involves the mastery of the fundamentals of several other courses both within and outside the built environment. Such courses include computer studies, accounting, office administration, civil engineering, quantity surveying, architecture, land surveying, engineering and law. The students must therefore be versatile to cope with the service courses in addition to the core courses. It is not uncommon for students to spend additional years to graduate. The main issue is that Estate Management education in Nigeria dwells largely on general practice. There is no provision yet for specialization.

  1. ii.             Lack of awareness of the profession

There is a general lack of awareness both on the study and practice of estate management in Nigeria. Egbenta (2008) for instance observes that most students gained admission to study Estate Management in Nigerian universities without an understanding of what the course entails. Many of such students after their first year either decide to change their course of study or drop out of the university. The Joint Admission & Matriculation Board (JAMB) brochure does not provide even a brief description of courses to enable prospective students have an idea of what Estate Management entails before choosing it as a career. Emegharibe (2005) notes that after over fifty years after the course was introduced into Nigeria, only a few tertiary educational institutions offer it. Among the general public, many do not understand who actually is the Estate Surveyor and Valuer as well as the services he or she renders.

  1. iii.           Paucity of manpower

Emegharibe (2005) points out that most Estate Management departments in Nigerian polytechnics are understaffed and attributes the problem mainly to brain drain in favour of developed countries and the private sector where remunerations are higher. The fact that most polytechnics offering Estate Management cannot run the HND programme clearly I underscore this. Nigerian universities are by no means excepted as there is at the moment only very few senior level academic staff on their payroll hence many of them cannot offer postgraduate programmes in Estate Management. Most Estate Management graduates wishing to run higher degrees are therefore forced to pick courses in environmental

management, construction management, project management, and other allied courses within the built environment.

Inadequate teaching and learning facilities

There is also the problem of acute shortage of relevant teaching and learning materials in the institutions that offer the programme. Relevant textbooks on estate management are lacking and the available ones are mostly foreign-based which do not reflect local conditions and trends. Adequate materials for field work and workshops are also lacking. Most students study courses such as computer appreciation, building technology, surveying, and so on without acquiring the needed practical skills. The inadequacy of teaching and learning facilities in institutions offering the programme is accentuated by poor funding by government to the educational sector.

Measuring of Improving the Quality of Estate Management Education in Nigeria

The following measures are hereby suggested for improving the quality of Estate Management education in Nigeria’s tertiary educational institutions:

  1. i.              There is need for increased budgetary allocation to the educational sector in Nigeria. It must be realized that for (he country to achieve its quest for national development, emphasis need be placed on the educational sector which at the moment is in a state of decay. The increased funding will help institutions in the procurement of leaching and learning facilities as well as creating an enabling environment for learning.
  2. ii.           The need to introduce specialization in Estate Management as it is with other professional courses is’strongly advocated. Such specializations may be in areas such as appraisal, plant and machinery valuation, facility and property management, housing, estate agency, and so on. This will help in producing sound and quality graduates in specialist fields of the profession.
  3. iii.         Effective collaboration and networking among the various institutions offering Estate Management is also suggested. This synergy will help in dealing with inadequacies and other limitations associated with the teaching of the course and consequently promote effectiveness and quality estate management programme in Nigeria.

>v– There is need to adequately equip department libraries of all tertiary educational institutions offering Estate Management. Main libraries should be equipped with relevant textbooks, journals, and other publications. E-library facilities should also be established and access given to all registered students. Collaboration with other international professional bodies should be made to enable students have access to their journals, research findings, and other publications. This will no doubt improve the quality of all programmes including Estate Management.

v> It is important that Estate Management departments should be adequately staffed with the required number of teaching staff for effective teaching and instruction. Training and retraining programmes should be made available to all academic staff to improve their overall performance and efficiency. This is crucially important because the quality of the programme and the graduates is a function of the quality of the academic and non­academic staff as well as available teaching and learning resources.

  • vi.           Appropriate machinery should be put in place to periodically review the curriculum. Decisions concerning past experiences and challenges encountered during the implementation processes of previous curricula should be reflected in the review process. It is also important that all relevant stakeholders be taken into consideration in the constitution of the body assigned the responsibility of reviewing the curriculum.
  • vii.        The Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV) and The Estate Surveyors and Valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON) should periodically monitor tertiary educational institutions offering Estate Management for compliance with minimum standards as far as the course is concerned. Findings and recommendations should be made to the relevant bodies such as the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) for evaluation and necessary implementation.
  • viii.      Effective supervision of students on industrial attachment at all levels should be done to ensure that they are receiving the relevant practical experiences. Visits by lecturers should be made compulsory and defaulting staff should be sanctioned. It is also important that posting of students for industrial attachment should only be made to relevant areas where the students will gain practical knowledge on every facet of the profession. This will undoubtedly improve the quality of estate management programmes in the institutions.


Estate management will continue to play a pivotal role in national development as evidenced by the wide spectrum of professional activities that members of the profession perform. It is therefore incumbent on all stakeholders to ensure that the quality of the programme is improved and sustained to meet current global standards. Current challenges must be dealt with proactively to ensure that the expected objectives are achieved. It is hoped that the measures formulated in this paper will considerably help in that regard.


Egbenta, I. (2008). A career choice in estate management: A study of student’s perception in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The Estate Surveyor & Valuer. 31 (2).

Emegharibe, P. N. (2005). Challenges in estate management education in Nigerian polytechnics. A paper presented at the 3rd Annual conference of the Nigerian Association of Vocational and Technical Educators. (NAVTED). Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri, 5th -7th May, 2005.

Thomcroft, M. (1965). Principles of estate management studies. In A. B. Obiechina et al. (Eds.) University of Nigeria 1960-1985: An experiment in higher education., Nsukka: University of Nigeria.

Daily Trust (2011, May 06).

Nigeria Institute of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (n.d). Code of professional ethics and practice.

Needs Assessment of Technical-Vocational Education and Training (TVET) 20: 20:20
Challenges and Prospects

Y. Mannan & H. R. Sai


The need assessment of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in Nigeria has revealed commendable but unsustainable efforts of government in strategies such as manpower training and provision of machines and equipment. It has been established that for an effective TVET programme, the whole economy is required to function in a synchronous manner. This has been found to be possible only if the nation’s economy is diversified to increase the economic well-being of the people. Government can increase earnings from its companies and taxes from others as well as from employed citizens in a self-sustaining industrial economy. Taking the matter of industrialization by the horn has therefore been recommended so as to eliminate the unemployment of products TVET.


The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Internationa) Labor Organization (ILO) (2002) have defined technical and vocational education to be “Those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding, and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic, and social life. Technical and vocational education is further understood to be:

  • (a)        An integral part of general education
  • (b)        A means of preparing for occupation fields and for effective participation in the world of work
  • (c)        An aspect of lifelong learning and a preparation for responsible citizenship
  • (d)        An instrument for promoting environmentally sound sustainable development
  • (e)        A method of facilitating poverty alleviation

Need assessment generally, is a re-evaluation of the adequacy of the instruments in use for the achievement of a goal so as to amend situations as necessary to ensure the achievement of set goals. This paper focuses on vocational technical education (VTE) need assessment for the purpose of ensuring the achievement of the goals of the programme in view of anxiety over its’ adequacy. Vocational technical education needs are the requirements deemed necessary for effectiveness of the programme.

* Mannan: IL R. Sai. Department of Education (Technical), Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.

Olaitan (1996) notes that assessing the needs in vocational technical instructional evaluation is to identity education or instructional progress that requires corrective measures. The identification of areas of effectiveness that have been determined objectively by others is what is referred to and used in view of the guidelines of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Labor Organization (ILO), and World Bank as standards. This is done under the implementable short term strategies noted by Makoju (2008) as:

  1. 1.       Production of skilled people by VTE institutions
  2. 2.       Use of well-equipped workshops and studios
  3. 3.     Use of qualified, skilful teachers, and instructors that can deliver practical skills
  4. 4.       Provision of adequate funding, and
  5. 5.     Provision of on-the-job-training, internship, and supervised industrial attach men t/traini ng by competent personnel

Products of VTE Institutions

The adequacy of the products of an educational, institution is measured by how well they perform in examinations if relevant or how well they fit into the role and responsibility expected of them where they are required in employment. The latter is often a better indicator as students can perform well in external examination which is based on a curriculum that has not been revised to be at par or better than satisfactory job performance in the relevant industry. An assessment of VTE institutions has been made on this matter by the Word Bank as cited in Barau (2008) thus: “Science is not attuned to the needs of the labour market. There is mismatch between the quality of preparedness and supply of graduates and the needs of the labour market.” The products of an educational institution are outcomes of what they go through. The following are involved:

  1. ii)                 Equipped studios and workshops
  2. iii)              Skilled academic personnel
  3. iv)               Adequate funding and
  4. v)                 On-the-job (raining

The State of Studios and Workshops for VTE in Nigeria – Provisions of studios and workshops for VTE should be in accordance with the theories of the programme which among other things include that:

  1. a)      There will be provisions that will enable the beneficiaries of VTE to actually be perfect in doing a job
  2. b)      VTE must lead the beneficiaries to establish appropriate habits
  3. c)      VTE content should be widely diversified, employing the experiences of competent workers who should work under real work situations
  4. d)     Admission of interested candidates must be based on the ability of these candidates to profit from VTE
  5. e)     VTE involves repetitive training on occupational experiences to enable the learners meet the demands of their specific occupations (Olaitan, 1996).

The philosophical foundation and organization structure of VTE have always been emphatic about it being the training of manpower for employment especially in technological societies. In the United States of America (USA) as noted by Roberts (1971) VTE is defined by the Federal Board for Vocational Education (1971) as vocational training for common wage earning employments. It may be given to boys and girls who, having selected a vocation, desire preparation before entering it; to boys and girls who have already taken up wage earning employment but seek greater efficiency in that employment; or to wage earners established in their trades or occupations, who wish through increase in their efficiency and wage earning capacity to advance to positions of responsibility.

The programme content of VTE is dependent on what the beneficiaries are expected to be able to do on graduation. The UNESCO and ILO have summed it up in articles 36 and 37 in UNESCO and ILO (2002). In view of the definition of the Federal Board for Vocational Education, it is just as wrong to graft the ‘self-reliance’ referred to by UNESCO and ILO (2002) in article 36d to the entrepreneurial skills of article 37f and interpret such to mean that each of the recipients of VTE will be self-employed, as it is wrong to expect them to on their own provide the metals, wood, electricity, leather, plastics, and other things that each of them will need in cheir occupations. That would be as contrary to the reality of society as it is impracticable. It should rather be interpreted respectively to mean:

  1. 1.     That the VTE recipients will receive such complete education as to empower them with individual capacity for further and lifelong learning and adaptation necessary for a fast and constantly changing world of work.
  2. 2.     That the VTE beneficiaries will be introduced to organizational, planning, and entrepreneurial skills so as to point out the way and quicken the full realization of the entrepreneurial potentials of the minority among them as it is in the larger society to become entrepreneurs.

The UNESCO and ILO could not have meant to be grafted together as an escape route for governments to avoid their social responsibility of employing their citizens particularly when high level of unemployment is a strong reason to vote political parties out of power in developed economies of the world. It is high time therefore that we substitute ‘preparation for gainful employment’ for ‘preparation for self-employment’ as inferable from the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004).

On the state of studios and workshops for VTE so as to produce workers for industry, tltey should be similar but on the lower scale than the actual ones in industries. Adara (1991) observes that workshops and laboratory equipment, tools and materials for practical work are in short supply in Nigerian VTE institutions. Ndomi (2006) has been cited by Adamu (2008) as having established gross inadequacy with respect to pupils’ textbooks, teachers’ guides,

infrastructure and software for implementing VTE programmes in Nigeria. Worse still, in this state of inadequacy, UNESCO (2003) as cited by Adamu (2008) has observed that mismanagement of even the scarce resources and underutilization of available equipment are bottlenecks in the system. Amagon (2009) also notes the problem of lack of care and maintenance, and in many instances, personnel needed to operate and maintain the machines are not available, thereby rendering the machines and equipment non-functionai.

Similarity, Ajoma (2008) cites Olaitan (1996), Suala (2004), and Asuquo (2005) who have noted impediments to the full realization of the VTE programme in Nigeria to include lack of or shortage of teaching materials, and lack of or ill-equipped laboratories and workshops. The importance of materials has also been noted by Salius and Samuel (2008) and Madugu (2009) who have warned that Vision 20-20 is doomed without a steel production sector. Other industrial raw materials and indigenized production of machineries, equipment and tools for industries and the educational sector are further issues that should be considered.

Availability of the Right Human Resources

Inadequate or even unavailability of required technical personnel has already been noted in the foregoing section. Ajoma (2008) states that inadequately trained teaching staff is one of the problems of VTE. Despite the Technical Teachers Training Programme (TTTP) of the 1970s to 1980s (over a period of ten years) and governments’ commitment to VTE and provision of teachers, Barau (2008) has cited World Bank Synthesis Report as saying that the quality of science and technology teachers is poor on average due to low and declining quality of candidates entering the teacher education system and the unattractiveness of the teaching career. This is partly responsible for the poor quality of teaching and learning environment which limits learners’ performance, job preparedness and proficiency in key skill areas, noted in the said World Bank Synthesis Report. This is in addition to the inadequacy of teacher preparation programme identified by Ajoma (2008) after the end of TTTP in the United States which involved using ill-equipped workshops in Nigeria. The situation cannot but be lamentable in view of losses of the products of TTTP to greener pastures, promotion to administrative positions, entry into self-employment, retirements, and deaths.

Funding of TVET over the Years


In the World Bank Synthesis Report cited by Barau (2008) it has been noted that science and technology education is not structured, regulated, or funded in such a way as to elicit its fall potential in promoting economic growth. This is properly due to embezzlement of funds by those in charge of the programmes which is among what Ajoma (2008) has indicated in her citation of Olaitan (2004) and Asuquo (2005) as problems of vocational, industrial, and technical education The same inadequate funding shows up again in the form of poor remuneration of teachers, and the lack of overall ICT policy and strategy for education sector to encourage teaching learning science and technology (the World Bank Synthesis report, as cited by Barau, 20081- This inadequacy partly explains virtual absence of serious research and development work at tertiary level of TVET.

On-the-Job Training

This is the fifth strategy employed for the operation of the TVET programmes. Students in institutions of higher learning are engaged in the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) at the Federal Governments’ expense. Attachment is supposed to be to industrial establishments similar to the ones students are expected to work in on graduation. The students are expected to know enough of through direct experience to improve his/her job as a worker or a technical teacher. Similarly, dropout children are attached by the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) to learn trades such as fabrication and welding, block and brick laying, video production and photography, computer operation, tailoring and knitting, automobile technology, electrical/electronics, panel-beating/spray painting, joinery and cabinet making among others.

Whether as products of these informal vocational training arrangements or products of the Junior Secondary School at about as early as 15years of age, vocational training or education is an instrument of poverty alleviation as the beneficiary can begin to earn a living. While the products of the apprenticeship scheme is expected to be self-employed like their masters during training, those of them in JSS could be employed in industry like the National Diploma, Higher National Diploma and degree holders in TVET. Unfortunately, the beneficiaries of NDE apprentice programmes find that they have no viable customer base in the urban area where they are trained, and patronage too low in the rural area to permit them to plan a settled family life on. Under this scenario, the question is, what is the way forward?

The Way Forward

In addition to the on-going major reforms in TVET (Aimola, 2008) issues being addressed through the National Economic Empowerment & Development Strategy (NEEDS) as indicated by Jackden (2008) include sustained activities of government agencies in favour of TVET such as the Industrial Training Fund and the National Directorate of Employment. The different levels of government should make effort to provide an enabling environment for employment creation directly and indirectly. This is more so as Stratman (1986) has established that even in developed countries such as Germany, students learn with the hope of getting a good job on graduation; and teachers reported that it almost seemed cynical to them to give out the usual call for zest for learning because it is assumed that the call for zest for learning will actually pay off. Nobody is trained for unemployment. This is more so in a society in which the good life has come to be associated with paid jobs particularly in the banks and oil industry.


Aspite all the efforts and good intentions of the Federal Government, it has been very difficult 10 operate successful technical vocational education and training in Nigeria as it requires a self-Sustaining industrial economy to succeed. Industrialization of Nigeria for the supply of industrial raw materials and machinery and equipment from within Nigeria has been recommended so that the resultant and improved socio-economic condition will enable the government and citizens to power an enviable TVET programme.


Adamu, A. (2009). Strategies for improving the provision of the infrastructural facilities for vocational and technical institutions in Nigeria. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education (JOVTED). II (I). 302-308.

Adara, A. O. (1991). Curriculum development in Nigeria: Issues, problems and prospects in vocational education in schools. Curriculum review conference proceedings. Lagos: Macmillan Publishers.

Aimola, B. F. (2009). Reforms in technical vocational education for self-reliance. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education (JOVTED). op. cit. 135-139.

Ajoma, C. U. (2009). Youth empowerment through vocational and technical education. JOVTED ibid. 22-36.

Amafon, M. I. (2009). Challenges of current education reforms in planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS) on vocational technical education in Nigeria. JOVTED. ibid. 57- 69.

Asuquo, E. E. (2005). Fundamentals of vocational and technical education. Kano: Smith Standard Nigeria Ltd.

Barau, M. M. (2008). Science, technology and the seven-point Agenda: Challenges and way forward. Proceedings of the l(fh annual national conference, (pp. 1-6). Kaduna: National Science and Technology Forum, CST, Kaduna Polytechnic.

Federal Board for Vocational Education (1971). Statement of Policies, Bulletin I. Washington, D. C..

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Vocational Education in Nigeria: Background, Trends, and Challenges

P. Ordu (PhD)


One of the aspects by which the quality of an educational programme should be judged is by the employability skills that beneficiaries of the programme have acquired as manifested in job performance in the labour market. This paper examines the genesis of vocational education in Nigeria, the roles played by the colonial administration and indigenous governments, and based on the developments to the present stage, the paper proffers solutions to certain identifiable challenges. The paper notes the existence of wastages in human and material resources in vocational education programme in Nigeria and recommends among other things, the active participation of government interests to revitalize the programmme to enhance national development.


Before the arrival of the British, there was human and community life in Nigeria. Since there was human life, there existed a form of vocational education associated with life at that level. The arrival of (he British did not carry this form of education along which evidently destroyed the vocational education structures on ground. Thereafter, indigenous governance at independence placed little emphasis on vocational education, prioritizing rather, liberal education.

An emerging area of interest in national curriculum development efforts is the inclusion and expansion of vocational education programmes. This is coming at a time the society is realizing that the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and experiences are necessary for the realization of values in education. The focus on vocational education is derived from the realization that entrepreneurship skills development is the way out of graduate unemployment that has become a perennial problem in the nation.

The concept of the middle ages necessarily takes researchers to the period in Europe Marked by reawakening in learning and literature (Ekpenyoung, 2008). During this pre 12lh century period, development came through several angles including liberal studies, trade, and ■ndustry. This new spirit and focus occasioned the search for knowledge, creativity, and discoveries in various trades.

Members of various trades could understand their usefulness in the immediate and distant societies. There came the need for the formation of groupings according to family levels and common trade groupings snch as associations aimed at protecting that trade which they identified

lr ^ac Ordu, Department of Secretarial Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), °^oku.

with. As is the characteristic of a dynamic society, time went by, these associations developed in various fields and spread to other parts of the world. Vocational education thus developed and spread.

In discussing vocational education today, it must be noted that the establishment of apprenticeship system was significant in various ways. It was strictly guided in order to standardize {he quality of products. The groups established different skills which prepared the way for the Industrial Revolution in Europe. The training methods offered in various fields paved the way for graduates to establish their own trades which encouraged innovations and creativity. By the joint effects of these groupings and trades, members found themselves focusing on the pursuit of common goals that enhanced development. Accordingly, Boyd and King (1975) in Ekpenyong (2008) note that this system prepared the way for the development of formal academic institutions. This was because those who were in the search for knowledge became students of those who were regarded as teachers or masters.

These trades encouraged the production of quality goods and services. This was observed in the way apprenticeship training was carried out. As the system survived in the dynamic society, it achieved growth and quality through the introduction of examinations, professional discipline, religious teachings, regulations and ethics. Collaborating the issue of quality in vocational education programme, Okoh (2010) observes that if modem vocational programmes could be run along the medieval prototypes, there is the likelihood that the issue of low quality products and services could be stamped out.

Enyekit, Amaehule & Adeyemi (2010) explain that vocational education is that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. He further averred that vocational education produces skilled manpower to grapple with the complexities of modem technological innovations. In Okon and Usoro (2008) vocational education is conducted as part of a programme designed to prepare individuals for gainful employment as semi-skilled workers, technicians, or sub professionals in recognized occupations as well as new and emerging occupations.

The Entry of Colonial Education Programmes

There existed several forms of apprenticeship programmes co-coordinated by parents, relations, and other elders who were into one form of trade or the other. If the type of skill needed for the child was not obtainable within the family, arrangement was made for apprenticeship programme elsewhere. Western education came with colonialism and the type of education was centred on liberal knowledge that focused on training clerks for colonial businesses, the civil service, and evangelization pursuits. The result was that foreign technicians, craftsmen, and engineers continued to be imported to meet national needs.

Although the focus of liberal education to life has continued to be maintained, its overall usefulness to modem trends in the society has started to be seriously questioned. In trying determine the usefulness to living, both liberal education and vocational education have i common focus. However when it comes to determining what should be the aim of education m emerging societies, liberal education becomes porous and outdated. Vocational education whid1 aims at filling the mind with knowledge that has a direct practical utility is preferred. In case, today’s environmental settings have proved that education that transmits knowledge and skills with practical utility should be preferred.

Components of Vocational Education

In his contributions to the discourse on work skilled areas found in vocational education programme, Inemikabo (2006) explains that preparation of workers requires an educational programme that provides skills and competencies in relation to higher order thinking, problem solving, and collaborative work skills. Accordingly, Akpan (2001) avers that vocational education work skills are found in the following sub-units: agricultural education, business and office education, computer education, distributive education, fine and applied arts education, home economics education, technical education, and trade and industrial education.

In universities above are sometimes regarded as “Units” and/or “programmes” functioning under the umbrella “Department of Vocational Education” or a name loosely framed. In Colleges of Education, the use of the nomenclatures such as School of Vocational Education, School of Technical Education, Schoo) of Business Education with Deans runs counter to the general concept of Vocational Education. “Computer Education” is usually domiciled in Vocational Education Department under Business Education Unit but in some Colleges of Education, it has been conceded to Science Education as double majors with several subjects. From the listing above, it can be said that vocational education refers to a vocationally oriented education aimed at equipping graduates with the necessary occupational skills and standards for the industry and economy.

Objectives of Vocational Education

The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) identifies the objectives of vocational education as the development of economically integrated individuals who will apply the knowledge of technology they have acquired in solving their immediate problems. The attempt to solve these problems can go a long way towards improving the standard of living of the individuals and the immediate and extended society. These objectives are reflected in the policy when it defines vocational education as the type of education that prepares youths and adults for employment in specific occupations in industries, commerce, and other enterprises by exposing them to experiences that will enable them to develop competencies needed for such employment. Nyanabo & Ahukannah (2007) explain that vocational education emphasizes acquisition of physical and intellectual skills that can enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful members of the society.

It is clear that our failure to accept and implement the concepts of the policy has resulted ln the problems associated with vocational education programmes in the nation. These objectives, according to Udofia (2007) can be put together as follows:

to provide trained manpower in applied sciences, technology and commerce at sub professional levels aimed at developing individuals who will be properly equipped with the requisite knowledge and skills for productive work life.

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